Building Security and Resilience: Infrastructure Development in Saudi Arabia and Australia

In an increasingly interconnected world, infrastructure security has emerged as a critical concern for both governments and businesses (World Economic Forum, 2022). Two countries, Saudi Arabia and Australia, despite being culturally and geographically distant, have acknowledged the significance of infrastructure development as a fundamental catalyst for economic progress. Consequently, they are actively investing in projects that emphasise security and resilience.

Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030 plan aims to reduce its reliance on oil and diversify its economy by undertaking massive infrastructure development projects (King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, 2016). The NEOM, a $500 billion mega-city, and the Red Sea Project, a luxury tourism destination, are set to revolutionize the country's economy. These projects not only generate employment opportunities and attract foreign investment, but also prioritize security and resilience. For instance, the Red Sea Project is incorporating state-of-the-art security systems, such as biometric identification and surveillance technologies, to ensure the safety of its visitors and inhabitants (Jacobs, n.d.). Additionally, the NEOM project is being designed with a strong emphasis on cybersecurity and is anticipated to include cutting-edge technology to safeguard against cyber threats (Bloomberg, 2021).

Australia's infrastructure development sector is well-established, with transformative projects like the Sydney Metro and WestConnex motorway significantly enhancing the country's transport network (Infrastructure Australia, 2018). However, Australia also faces unique security challenges, including natural disasters and cyber-attacks (Minister for Home Affairs, 2023). As a result, security measures are increasingly being incorporated into Australian infrastructure projects during the design and construction phase. For instance, the WestConnex motorway features tunnels designed to withstand the physical impacts of climate change (WestConnex, 2018), and the Sydney Metro has a dedicated cybersecurity team responsible for safeguarding its systems against cyber threats (Rail Industry Safety and Standards Board, 2019).

Infrastructure security is not just about physical security measures like surveillance cameras, access controls, and perimeter fencing. Security design involves a comprehensive and systematic approach to identifying and mitigating potential security risks and vulnerabilities of infrastructure projects. It includes a range of technical and non-technical measures such as access controls, threat assessments, security policies and procedures, intrusion detection systems, and emergency response plans.

During the planning and design stage, security experts work closely with architects and engineers to assess the potential risks and threats, and develop a security plan that addresses them. This step may be formalised as a Security Risk Assessment. This includes identifying the critical assets that need protection, assessing the physical and cyber vulnerabilities of the infrastructure, and selecting appropriate security technologies and systems to address these risks.

Once the security plan is developed, it is integrated into the project design and construction process. This involves incorporating physical security features such as blast-resistant walls, anti-ram barriers, and reinforced concrete structures, as well as installing electronic security systems like CCTV cameras, intrusion detection systems, and access control systems.

In addition to physical security measures, security design also includes cyber security measures to protect against cyber attacks. This involves designing and implementing secure IT networks, firewalls, encryption protocols, and other measures to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of critical data and systems.

Ultimately, security design aims to ensure that infrastructure projects are built to be secure and resilient, able to withstand a wide range of potential security threats, and can continue to operate in the face of these threats.

Infrastructure security is a crucial aspect of modern infrastructure projects, and it involves incorporating measures to protect against various types of threats. Physical security measures, such as surveillance cameras and access controls, must be complemented with cybersecurity measures to prevent cyber-attacks, data breaches, and other digital threats. Infrastructure projects must also ensure business continuity in the event of a disruption, such as a natural disaster or a cyber-attack.

In Saudi Arabia, the Red Sea Project incorporates biometric identification and surveillance technologies to ensure the safety and security of its visitors and residents. The NEOM project is taking cybersecurity to a whole new level, as it is being designed with quantum system technology to protect against cyber threats. Meanwhile, in Australia, the Sydney Metro has a dedicated cybersecurity team to ensure the safety of its systems from cyber-attacks.

The WestConnex motorway in Australia also provides an excellent example of security design that promotes resilience to natural hazards and changing environmental conditions. The tunnels are designed to withstand physical impacts from climate change and projected hotter, drier, and stormier weather patterns, as well as rising sea levels. These design features aim to protect against natural disasters and ensure the continuity of the infrastructure project.

Overall, infrastructure security must be based on a comprehensive understanding of the risks and vulnerabilities of the system, as well as the potential consequences of a security incident. By incorporating security measures into the design, construction, and operation of infrastructure projects, governments and businesses can ensure the safety and security of their assets and the people who use them

Although Saudi Arabia and Australia are vastly different in terms of their infrastructure sectors, there are still opportunities for collaboration and knowledge-sharing. Saudi Arabia's rapidly growing infrastructure sector could benefit from the experience and expertise of Australian companies, while Australia could learn from Saudi Arabia's innovative approach to infrastructure security. For instance, Australian companies could provide their expertise in cybersecurity and disaster resilience, while Saudi Arabia could share its experience in implementing advanced security technologies such as biometric identification and surveillance systems. By working together, both countries could enhance their infrastructure development and strengthen their overall security posture.

Saudi Arabia could benefit from Australian expertise in natural disaster resilience, despite not being as susceptible to natural disasters such as bushfires, droughts, cyclones, or severe thunderstorms. Instead, the country faces other risks such as sandstorms, flash floods, and extreme heatwaves that are more prevalent in the region, and can damage infrastructure and disrupt operations, leading to significant economic impacts. Australian companies have extensive experience in natural disaster resilience and could share their knowledge and expertise with Saudi Arabia to develop strategies that mitigate these risks.

Another area where Saudi Arabia and Australia could collaborate is in the field of cybersecurity. Cybersecurity is an essential aspect of infrastructure security in the digital age, and both countries are facing significant cybersecurity threats. Cybersecurity breaches can have serious consequences for infrastructure projects, including data breaches, theft of intellectual property, and disruption of operations. By working together, companies in both markets could develop more effective cybersecurity strategies, share information on emerging threats and trends, and leverage each other's expertise and resources to enhance their cybersecurity posture.

As our world becomes more interconnected and interdependent, the importance of infrastructure security continues to grow. In Saudi Arabia and Australia, two countries with distinct cultures and economic backgrounds, infrastructure development is a top priority, with a focus on enhancing security and resilience. By collaborating and sharing knowledge, these markets can learn from each other and create a safer, more secure global community. As we move forward, it is critical that we continue to invest in infrastructure security to protect against both physical and cyber threats and ensure that our systems remain secure and reliable.

As the infrastructure development sector grows in both Saudi Arabia and Australia, it is essential to address the similar security challenges that come with it. These challenges may include physical and cyber threats, natural disasters, and other vulnerabilities that could impact the success of infrastructure projects. By implementing effective security measures, businesses and government agencies can ensure the safety and security of their premises, employees, and assets. This will not only protect against potential risks but also enhance the overall resilience of the infrastructure sector.

In conclusion, the infrastructure development sector in Saudi Arabia and Australia is witnessing significant growth, with a strong focus on security and resilience. Infrastructure security goes beyond physical measures like surveillance and access control, and includes incorporating security measures into the design of infrastructure projects. Collaborating and sharing knowledge between these two markets can result in a safer, more secure world. As the world becomes more interconnected, infrastructure security will become an increasingly important concern for governments and businesses globally. By prioritizing security and resilience in their infrastructure development projects, businesses and government agencies in Saudi Arabia, Australia, and beyond can protect their assets, employees, and the public from physical and cyber threats.


Bloomberg. (2021, December 8). Arqit and NEOM Enter into Agreement to Build and Trial Cognitive City Quantum Security System.

Infrastructure Australia. (2018). Prioritising Reform.

Jacobs. (n.d.). Putting Travel Pin Map in Luxurious Red Sea International Airport.

King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud. (2016). Vision 2030.

Minister for Home Affairs. (2023, February 23). World-leading protection for Australia's critical infrastructure.

Rail Industry Safety and Standards Board. (2019). Cyber security strategy.

WestConnex. (2018). Leading the way in Sustainability on the new extensions of the M4 and M8.

World Economic Forum. (2022, May 5). Securing Systemically Important Critical Infrastructure.